A guide to the Sevres Marks including the Double L and Double C marks
The Sevres double L mark was introduced in 1751 and in 1753 year letters were added to all Sevres marks
The Sevres Porcelain year cyphers began with an ‘A’ in 1753 and continued until ‘Z’
In 1777 these then moved to a ‘AA’ in 1778 and continued to ‘PP’ in 1793.
After 1793 the double L mark was replaced by the RF mark, which stood for République Française.
This ocurred as the revolutionaries had overthrown the French King Louis XVI.
In 1803, the republique period as it was known, was followed by the consulate period
In 1804, the empire period began when Napoleon I Bonaparte proclaimed himself emperor of France.
In 1814, After the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo, the monarchy was re-installed in France.
When Louis XVIII became the new king. the Sèvres factory re-introduced the double L mark and it continued to use it until 1824.
When Charles X succeeded Louis XVIII, the double L was replaced by the double C mark.
The Sevres double ‘L’ mark was copied by many other manufacturers.
This included contintental and british manufacturers such as Coalport, Derby & Minton and Paris, Potschappel and Limoges.
Minton (England – Staffordshire) Founded in 1793 by: Thomas Minton
The Minton factory was originally an earthenware factory, then from 1798 it started producing procelain. The imitation Sèvres Porcelain mark was used between 1800 and 1816 on Sèvres looking wares. The pattern number was always placed between the two L’s.
Paris (France – Clignancourt) Founded in 1771 by: Pierre Deruelle
The Clignancourt painting studio had the special protection of the French Royal family, and it was the French Kings’ brother, on 16th May 1784, that arranged permission for the factory to apply polychrome decoration to porcelain. The Sèvres factory had previously held a monopoly on polychrome decoration
Paris (France – Rue de la Paix) Founded in 1820 by: Feuillet
Used: 19th century
Feuillet porcelain was bought from several porcelain factories, including the Sèvres factory and decorated in the Sevres style.
Paris (France – Rue de Fbg. Joint-Martin) Founded in 1870 by: Balthasar Augustin Le Hujeur
This Paris factory, just like Edmond Samson, was a distinguished imitator of Sèvres porcelain.
Paris (France – Rue Béranger) Founded in 1873 by: Edm. Samson
Used: Late 19th and 20th century
Edm. Samson was given the name “Samson the Imitator” as he produced mainly copies of objects from all the famous porcelain factories including Meissen, Sèvres and Naples (Capo di Monte). Initially the copies were made for private collectors and for museums but
this soon changed.
Potschappel (Germany – Saxony) Founded in 1872 by: Carl Thieme
Used: 20th century
The Potschappel company produced art porcelain in the old tradition and is still operational.
Coalport (England) Founded in 1796 by : John Rose
Coalport did not use a mark until 1805 and many of their early wares were decorated outside the factory. William Billingsley joined the factory in 1820 and improved the decoration and from 1830 the factory began to produce coloured grounds modelled on Sèvres Porcelain wares.
Derby (England) Founded in 1756 by: Planché, John Heath and William Duesbury
The first Derby factory was set up in 1745 but didn’t last long. A second attempt, by William Duesbury in 1756, was more succesful. Derby products were advertised with the slogan ‘Derby or the second Dresden’, in imitaion of Meissen. Derby merged in 1784 with the Chelsea factory and during the mid 19th century a lot of the Sèvres porcelain was imitated.
Foecy (France – Cher) Founded in 1898 by: Louis Lourioux
Used: 2Oth century
Foecy produced tablewares as well as art porcelain in imitation of Sèvres porcelain.
Ile St. Denis (France – Seine) Founded in 1778 by Laferté
The Ile St. Denis factory was founded around the time Sevres monopolised polychrome decoration. In 1778 Ile St. Denis wares were marked with the double L monogram then in 1779 and 1780, they added the year to the mark.
Lichte (Germany – Thuringia) Founded in 1822 by: Johann Heinrich Leder
The Lichte mark shown was used while the brothers Wilhelm and Heinrich Liebmann controlled the factory. In 1840 the factory was taken over by Christoph and Phillip Heubach, who introduced other marks.
Limoges (France) Founded in 1771 by: Gillet, Massé & Fourneira
Used: 1784 – 1793
The Limoges factory was founded under the protection of the Count of Artois. In 1784 it became the property of the French crown, and the double L mark was introduced as factory mark. The actual Limoges factory (there were and are a lot of other porcelain factories in Limoges), was closed in 1796. White Limoges porcelain was often decorated at the Sèvres Porcelain factory.